Local Development

Table of contents

This document describes how to set up a local development environment for Pressbooks on various operating systems. Following these instructions will give you a local development network of Pressbooks based on roots/bedrock and roots/trellis, with the following features:

Ubuntu

Supported Ubuntu versions: 20.04

Dependencies

Concise directions for installing VirtualBox, Vagrant, and Ansible are available in the Trellis docs.

Setup

Create a directory for your local development environment and cd there:

mkdir ~/Code/pressbooks-dev && cd ~/Code/pressbooks-dev

Clone pressbooks/trellis into ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/trellis:

git clone git@github.com:pressbooks/trellis.git

Clone pressbooks/bedrock or your preferred bedrock into ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/site:

git clone git@github.com:pressbooks/bedrock.git site

The generic Pressbooks bedrock already includes pressbooks/pressbooks, pressbooks/pressbooks-aldine and the required themes as Composer dependencies. If you would like to add additional plugins or themes to your local development environment, add them to your Bedrock with composer require commands (for more information on this strategy, see this post). The commands needed to add the Pressbooks SAML SSO plugin, for example, are shown below:

cd ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/site
composer require pressbooks/pressbooks-saml-sso:dev-dev

Configuration

The file ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/trellis/group_vars/development/wordpress_sites.yml reflects your desired local development site URL.

wordpress_sites:
  pressbooks.test:
    site_hosts:
      - canonical: pressbooks.test
        redirects:
          - www.pressbooks.test
    local_path: ../site # path targeting local Bedrock site directory (relative to Ansible root)
    admin_email: ops@pressbooks.test
    multisite:
      enabled: true
      subdomains: false
    ssl:
      enabled: true
      provider: self-signed
    cache:
      enabled: false
    packagist_token: <PACKAGIST_TOKEN>

Replace <PACKAGIST_TOKEN> with your packagist token. It should work out-of-the-box. If you want to setup staging or production environments, you will need to update all instances of example.com and pressbooks.test in ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/trellis/group_vars/ to a consistent value. For more info, consult the Trellis docs.

Launch

Open the terminal. Change to the ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/trellis/ directory and run vagrant up:

cd %HOMEPATH%\\Code\\pressbooks-dev\\trellis
vagrant up

Fully provisioning your development environment will take several minutes.

macOS Intel and Apple Silicon

Big Sur or later is strongly recommended. Earlier versions of MacOS may or may not work with the instructions below.

Dependencies

Install Homebrew:

/usr/bin/ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/install)"

Install Homebrew Cask:

brew tap homebrew/cask

Install the version of Ansible in [requirements.txt]. A specific version can be installed by running:

pip install ansible==2.10.7

or to better track the requirements version from the pressbooks/trellis project, download requirements.txt from https://github.com/pressbooks/trellis/blob/master/requirements.txt and then run the following command: pip install -r requirements.txt

Install Vagrant:

There is currently a problem with vagrant 2.2.19 on MacOS, which is what is also packaged with Brew. Until this is resolved, fetch it directly from Hashicorp here:

https://releases.hashicorp.com/vagrant/2.2.18/vagrant_2.2.18_x86_64.dmg

brew install --cask vagrant

Install vagrant-bindfs:

vagrant plugin install vagrant-bindfs

Install vagrant-hostmanager:

vagrant plugin install vagrant-hostmanager

Intel/x86_64 hardware only

On Apple systems running Intel CPUs Virtualbox is a free and open source virtualization platform:

Install Virtualbox:

brew install --cask virtualbox

Apple Silicon (M1/M2)

For machines running on Apple silicon, virtualbox is not an option, as it it x86 only. Parallels is an option that is known to work (but is not free or open source). Purchase a subscription license for Parallels Desktop Pro Edition, and install it as per their instructions. This also requires the Vagrant Parallels Provider. After Parallels is installed run:

vagrant plugin install vagrant-parallels

Edit vagrant.default.yml and comment out the Intel lines, uncomment the M1 lines (so that the Ubuntu image uses the correct archictecture). For M1 these line should be:

vagrant_box: 'jeffnoxon/ubuntu-20.04-arm64'

vagrant_box_version: '>= 1.0.0'

Intel and Apple Silicon (continued)

Install Composer:

brew install composer

NOTE: This will pull in the most current version of PHP that Brew has available, which might not be desirable if you want to run composer on the MacOS side. To install an earlier version of PHP, such as PHP 7.4 exectute the following:

brew install php@7.4

You will also need to change your $PATH in your .bashrc or .zshrc files, depending on what shell you're running.

Install Node with NPM:

brew install node

MacOS Permissions and nfsd

On recent versionf of MacOS (Catalina and later), the NFS file sharing between the VM and the host OS is broken unless it is granted special permissions. To resove this do the following:

  1. Open system preferences (under the Apple menu)
  2. Click on 'Security & Privacy'
  3. Click on 'Privacy' tab
  4. Find 'Full Disk Access' in the left column
  5. Unlock the preference panel so that you can make changes (this will require your MacOS password)
  6. Click '+' to add a program
  7. Press CMD+Shift+G to browse to a folder
  8. Go to folder '/sbin'
  9. Add the nfsd application
  10. Reboot your Mac

Setup

Create a directory for your local development environment and cd there:

mkdir ~/Code/pressbooks-dev && cd ~/Code/pressbooks-dev

Clone pressbooks/trellis into ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/trellis:

git clone git@github.com:pressbooks/trellis.git

Clone pressbooks/bedrock or your preferred bedrock into ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/site:

git clone git@github.com:pressbooks/bedrock.git site

The generic Pressbooks bedrock already includes pressbooks/pressbooks, pressbooks/pressbooks-aldine and the required themes as Composer dependencies. If you would like to add additional plugins or themes to your local development environment, add them to your Bedrock with composer require commands (for more information on this strategy, see this post). The commands needed to add the Pressbooks SAML SSO plugin, for example, are shown below:

cd ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/site
composer require pressbooks/pressbooks-saml-sso:dev-dev

Configuration

The file ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/trellis/group_vars/development/wordpress_sites.yml reflects your desired local development site URL. It looks like:

wordpress_sites:
  pressbooks.test:
    site_hosts:
      - canonical: pressbooks.test
        redirects:
          - www.pressbooks.test
    local_path: ../site # path targeting local Bedrock site directory (relative to Ansible root)
    admin_email: ops@pressbooks.test
    multisite:
      enabled: true
      subdomains: false
    ssl:
      enabled: true
      provider: self-signed
    cache:
      enabled: false
      packagist_token: <PACKAGIST_TOKEN>

Replace <PACKAGIST_TOKEN> with your packagist token. It should work out-of-the-box. If you want to setup staging or production environments, you will need to update all instances of example.com and pressbooks.test in ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/trellis/group_vars/ to a consistent value. For more info, consult the Trellis docs.

Launch

Change to the ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/trellis/ directory and run vagrant up:

cd ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/trellis/ && vagrant up

You will be required to enter your macOS password at a certain point in the process. Fully provisioning your development environment will take several minutes.

Windows

Dependencies

At the Command Prompt, install the following Vagrant plugins:

vagrant plugin install vagrant-bindfs
vagrant plugin install vagrant-hostmanager
vagrant plugin install vagrant-winnfsd

Windows users run Ansible on the VM (since it's running Ubuntu) and not locally. You do not need to install Ansible manually.

Setup

Start Git Bash (it comes with Git For Windows). Create a directory for your local development environment and cd there:

mkdir ~/Code/pressbooks-dev && cd ~/Code/pressbooks-dev

Clone pressbooks/trellis into ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/trellis:

git clone git@github.com:pressbooks/trellis.git

Clone pressbooks/bedrock or your preferred bedrock into ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/site:

git clone git@github.com:pressbooks/bedrock.git site

The generic Pressbooks bedrock already includes pressbooks/pressbooks, pressbooks/pressbooks-aldine and the required themes as Composer dependencies. If you would like to add additional plugins or themes to your local development environment, add them to your Bedrock with composer require commands (for more information on this strategy, see this post). The commands needed to add the Pressbooks SAML SSO plugin, for example, are shown below:

cd ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/site
composer.phar require pressbooks/pressbooks-saml-sso:dev-dev

Configuration

The file ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/trellis/group_vars/development/wordpress_sites.yml reflects your desired local development site URL. It looks like:

wordpress_sites:
  pressbooks.test:
    site_hosts:
      - canonical: pressbooks.test
        redirects:
          - www.pressbooks.test
    local_path: ../site # path targeting local Bedrock site directory (relative to Ansible root)
    admin_email: ops@pressbooks.test
    multisite:
      enabled: true
      subdomains: false
    ssl:
      enabled: true
      provider: self-signed
    cache:
     packagist_token: <PACKAGIST_TOKEN>

Replace <PACKAGIST_TOKEN> with your packagist token. It should work out-of-the-box. If you want to setup staging or production environments, you will need to update all instances of example.com and pressbooks.test in ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/trellis/group_vars/ to a consistent value. For more info, consult the Trellis docs.

Launch

Trellis for Windows requires Administrator privileges when doing the initial provisioning. If UAC is enabled, make sure the initial vagrant up is run from a command prompt with elevated privileges (Run as Administrator).

Start the default Windows Command Prompt (right click, run as Administrator)

Change to the ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/trellis/ directory and run vagrant up:

cd %HOMEPATH%\\Code\\pressbooks-dev\\trellis
vagrant up

Fully provisioning your development environment may take several minutes.

When finished, do a vagrant halt, then kill the NFS server with taskkill /f /im winnfsd.exe, then exit the Administrator Command Prompt, then redo vagrant up in a regular user privileged Command Prompt.

Development Tools

Login:

The default Pressbooks username:password is admin:admin

Logs:

Access and error logs are located on the VM in following directory:

/srv/www/example.com/logs/

Unit Testing and Coding Standards

Unit testing in the VM:

vagrant ssh
cd /srv/www/example.com/current
bin/install-wp-tests.sh pressbooks_tests pressbooks_test '' 127.0.0.1 latest true
composer test

Coding standards in the VM:

vagrant ssh
cd /srv/www/example.com/current
composer standards

Asset Building

We use webpack wrapped in Laravel Mix to build plugin assets (CSS and JavaScript) for Pressbooks.

  1. At the command prompt from the Pressbooks plugin directory, e.g. ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/site/web/app/plugins/pressbooks, run npm i or npm install --no-save pressbooks-build-tools to install build tools.
  2. To lint your Javascript and SCSS assets, run npm run lint.
  3. Then, run npm run build or npm run build:production to build your plugin assets (npm run build:production will add a version hash to the asset manifest for browser cache busting).

Updating Plugins & Themes

In the terminal:

cd ~/Code/pressbooks-dev/site
composer update pressbooks/pressbooks --with-dependencies
composer update pressbooks/pressbooks-aldine --with-dependencies
composer update pressbooks/pressbooks-book --with-dependencies

Updating Trellis & Bedrock

To update Trellis, it's best to rename the origin remote to upstream and check out the upstream master branch as a new branch called upstream:

~/Code/pressbooks-dev/trellis
git remote rename origin upstream
git checkout -b upstream upstream/master

Then any time you wish to update Trellis, you can run the following commands:

git checkout upstream && git pull
git checkout master
git merge upstream

Then commit the merge.

For Bedrock, follow the same process:

~/Code/pressbooks-dev/site
git remote rename origin upstream
git checkout -b upstream upstream/master

Then any time you wish to update Bedrock, you can run the following commands:

git checkout upstream && git pull
git checkout master
git merge upstream

You may need to regenerate your composer.lock file to resolve merge conflicts before committing changes.